Into this dynamic pond system we introduce two critical factors – fish and man. How can our Koi possibly survive in an environment that can become 100 – 200 times more alkaline / acidic, have a temperature change of more than 5C, have oxygen levels that can drop and rise dramatically, and have a shifting
The levels of ammonia and toxicity of ammonia are never constant. These are closely related to your pH levels A few hours after feeding the ammonia level will rise as the nitrogen wastes of the fish are excreted. This can actually be measured. A measurement just before feeding should produce the lowest or no ammonia
On most occasions temperature will be lowest in the morning just before sunrise and the highest at sunset (unless your pond is built on a nuclear waste dump, which generates its own heat). Temperature is influenced by the amount of sun, the intensity of the sun the pond receives and other factors such as wind
In the morning the pH will be low compared to a test done in the late afternoon so it is important that you remain consistent with the times you check your levels. The buffering capacity of the water will play a major roles in the dynamic fluctuation of pH during the course of a day.
Possibly the single most important element in pond water – and the most neglected aspect of Koi keeping. For life to exist in water there must be oxygen dissolved in it. Whilst there are around 210 000 part per million of oxygen in the atmosphere there are only around 8 parts per million in water
Water is a very remarkable substance. The extraordinary properties of water have a direct bearing and influence on the daily existence of our fish. A fish’s body is composed of more or less 80% of water. So it is easy to envisage fish as a volume of water separated from another volume of water (the